APA (American Psychological Association) Format Citation Guide
This article has written in order to teach the basics of APA Format, but many rules will not be mentioned here such as “Newspaper Citations” or “TV Program Citations”. For further information, you can visit: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html
Or you can simply use: https://www.citationmachine.net/apa
Basics of an APA Reference
- Initials should be separated and ended by a period. eg Hawking, S.
- Multiple authors should be separated by commas and an ampersand. Eg Hawking, S., &Mendeley, J.A.
- If there are multiple authors with the same surname and initial: put their name in square brackets. Eg Mendeley, J. [James]
- The date in the citation sentence should refer to the date of “publishing”.
- If the published date is unknown; “n.d” should be used.
- A classic citation sentence should be in this format: Author’s surname, initials. (Date Published). Title. Location of publisher: publisher corporation. URL (if there is)
APA Format Reference List
- The reference list of your work should include every source that you have used in the correct format.
- The reference list has to be on a new page at the end of your document. It has to be centered.
- It has to be alphabetically ordered due to every first character of sentences.
- If there is more than one work from the same author in the reference list; these should be ordered by date, if the works are on the same date they should be ordered alphabetically by title.
APA Format In-Text Citation
- In-text citations should be included right after the use of a quote or paraphrase from another source.
- In-text citations are the shortened version of reference list versions, thus every in-text citation must refer a reference in the main reference list.
- After you indicate where you used a paraphrase or quote in the text, you should cite it in an in-text citation format at the end of the page.
- While making in-text citations; Surname of the author and date published is enough. Eg Hawking (2011). Or (Hawking,2011).
- If you take a quote without paraphrasing, you should include page number too. Eg (Hawking,2011, p.96)
If There Are Two Authors
- Surname of both authors should be stated with either “and” or an ampersand. Eg Mitchell and Smith (2008)/ (Mitchell & Smith, 2008)
If There Are Three, Four or Five Authors
- If you are citing the source for the first time, all names should be listed in the requested format.
- If you have already cited the source before, you can shorten the citation by using et al after the first author. Eg (Hawking et al,2008) / Hawking et al (2008)
If There Are More Than Five Authors
- Only the first author’s surname should be stated, rest can be shortened with et al.
If There Are No Authors
- If the author is unknown and it is a book, brochure or report; the title should be italicized. Eg (APA Format Citation Guide, 2020)
- If the author is unknown and it is an article, chapter or web page; the title should be in quotation marks. Eg (“APA Format Citation Guide”, 2020)
If There Are Multiple Works from the Same Author Within Same Year
- All Works should be indicated with English Alphabet letters such as a,b,c following the date. These letters should correspond to the reference list in alphabetical order. Eg
- (Hawking, 2011a)
- (Hawking, 2011b)
If There Are Multiple Works from the Same Author from Different Years
- While in-text citing multiple works from the same author, the surname is stated once followed by the dates chronologically. Eg (Evans, 2009,2013,2018)
- If the works are by multiple authors works should be separated due to date with a semicolon. Eg (Evans & Smith 2018; Thomson, Hawking & Adams, 2014)
What is MLA (Modern Language Association) Style? How to Use MLA Style?
MLA Style is one of the citation types while writing an academic paper. MLA Style is mostly using for citing sources while writing about language arts, cultural studies, humanity disciplines such as psychology, sociology or anthropology and so on.
This article gives general information about MLA Style, in order to get further information please visit: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_style_introduction.html
MLA Style makes it easier to navigate and comprehend a text in general. Also using the same type for similar topics simplifies editors’ and readers’ jobs.
Using MLA Style will provide your readers to follow your ideas more efficiently and locate the sources that you have used. Also, your paper will become more credible and reputable if you use MLA Style properly. On the other hand, using MLA Style makes easier to show your paper as a source for other researchers.
- The article should be written on a computer and 8.5 *11-inch white paper
- A legible font (most commonly Times New Roman) should be used and there should be double space between lines, the font size should be 12 pt.
- If otherwise wasn’t prompted, leave one space after punctuations.
- Start every paragraph with using “TAB”
- Number every page respectively in the upper right corner.
- Don’t use italics and bolds redundantly
- Endnotes and reference list should be on a different page at the end of the article
Format of the First Page
- Don’t make a title page unless it has requested
- The course, the date, instructor’s name, and your name should be in the upper left corner
- Write the title in standard capitalization, don’t capitalize all letters
- Your surname and page number should be in the upper right corner with one space between them
- Create a table of content on the second page
- You should use in-text citations when you use a summarize, paraphrase or direct quote from a different source. Every in-text citation must correspond to an entry in the reference list. While using in-text citations in MLA Style; author’s last name and page number in parenthesis will be enough. Eg ………. (Hawking,196).
- If there are multiple works that you have benefited while constructing your sentence, works should be separated with a semi-colon. Eg …………………………..(Hawking 196; Adams 145).
- If you have used a source by multiple authors, you should use “and” between the surnames. Eg ………………… (Hawking and Adams 95).
- If you have used a source by three or more authors, you should show only the first one and then use et al. Eg ……………………………… (Hawking et al. 145).
- If you have already used the author name in the sentence, then page number will be enough. Eg Hawking stated that; …………. (196).
- If you are citing web pages in your text; you can use the title if author is unknown. Web page in-text citations have to correspond an entry in reference list too.
- You should begin your works cited page on a different one at the end of your paper.
- Sources should be listed respectively to the order that you have used in the text.
- If you are citing a book; then you should include the author’s name (Last name, First Name), title, other contributors (if exists), version, number, publisher, publication date and location respectively. Eg Hawking, Stephen. A Brief History of Time. Bantam Dell Publishing Group. 1988.
- If the book is written by two authors, you should write both names with an “and” between them.
- If the book has three or more authors, you should et al after the first name.
- If there are two or more books from the same author, you should cite the first one in the correct format and show the other ones (no author name should be included) starting with a dot and three hyphens. Eg
Hawking, Stephen. A Brief History of Time. Bantam Dell Publishing Group. 1988.
.— Brief Answers to the Big Questions. Hodder & Stoughton. 2018.
- If the book that you want to cite doesn’t have an author, then you should skip the author’s name and apply the rest of the procedure.
- If you are citing a web site, you should include the author’s or compiler’s name (if exists), name of the site, version number (if exists), name of institution (sponsor or publisher). Date of the website (if exists), DOI number or URL (DOI preferred in common). Eg The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.