Sinus Infection is a disease that occurs when the cavities in the facial bones are filled with inflamed tissue. It is manifested by nasal congestion, yellow-green nasal discharge, nasal discharge, headache and difficulty in smelling.
What is Sinusitis?
Sinuses; It is defined as the air gaps in the bones around the nose. There are five pairs of sinuses in man. These;
- Cheek sinuses (maxillary sinuses),
- Forehead sinuses (frontal sinuses),
- Sinuses between the eyes (anterior and posterior ethmoid sinuses)
- Sinuses in the nasal region (sphenoid sinuses).
In babies and children, the appearance of the sinuses in adults and their development by ventilation are greatly completed at the ages of 12-14. However, it takes 22-24 years old to take their final shape.
The sinuses are part of the system of the nose, which forms the normal secretion (mucus). Normally, the nose and sinuses secrete approximately half a liter of mucus per day. They sweep and wash dust particles, bacteria and other airborne particles, moving on the produced mucus nasal cover (mucosa). This mucus is then filtered back into the throat and swallowed. The particles and bacteria in it are broken down by stomach acid. Many people are not aware of this because it is a normal body function.
Sinusitis; This is a general definition of inflammation of the mucosa lining the sinuses located around the nose. Since there is no situation where only the sinus mucosa is affected and the nasal mucosa is not affected, today the term “rhinosinusitis” is used instead of the term sinusitis. In general, sinusitis occurs when the mucus (snot) produced by the covering mucosa cannot be discharged into the nose. There are three main factors that cause this.
Obstruction of the nasal discharge ducts (ostium) of the sinuses,
Disruption of the system (mucociliary activity) that actively carries the mucous to the ostium in the sinuses,
Change of mucus content or consistency.
In the presence of one or more of these factors, the growth of bacteria in the mucus accumulated in the sinuses causes sinusitis. Sinusitis is generally classified as follows:
- Acute sinusitis
- Chronic sinusitis
- Subacute sinusitis
- Recurrent (recurrent) acute sinusitis
- Acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis
How To Tell If You Have a Sinus Infection
Symptoms of sinusitis vary from person to person. Generally, people think that sinusitis occurs when the head or face hurts, whereas sinusitis makes little difference with pain. Pain rate in sinusitis is around 5 percent. Complaints that are more prominent in sinusitis are known as nasal congestion, deterioration in sound, feeling of fullness and runny nose. In general, sinusitis symptoms can be defined as such;
Sinus Infection Symptoms
- Stubborn cough that occurs at night or in the morning,
- Yellow-green colored viscous runny nose,
- Feeling of pressure around the eyes,
- Bad breath in breath, bad smell, nausea and / or vomiting,
- Cold (flu / flu) lasting more than 10-14 days, sometimes mild fever,
- Nasal congestion and snoring,
- Sometimes burning in the throat with nasal discharge,
- Behavior changes,
- Long-lasting headache
Causes Of Sinusitis Infection
Although there are many different causes of sinusitis, the most common causes are as follows;
- Viral upper respiratory tract infections (URI): It is the most common cause of sinusitis. Edema and inflammation due to viral infection of the nasal mucosa and blockage of the sinus ejaculation channels, as well as the presence of secretion accumulation in the sinuses and oxygenation in the sinus due to the occlusion of the mucus. Following this stage, sinusitis occurs with secondary bacterial growth.
- Mucosal edema that obstructs allergy-induced sinus ostium is the second important cause of sinusitis.
- In-nose curves (septum deviation),
- Anatomical pathologies that narrow or block the sinus ejaculation channels, such as nasal enlargement (turbinate hypertrophies)
- Enlarged adolescent meats, especially in children
- Pressure changes that occur during swimming or plane travel lead to the closure of ostiums.
Sinusitis is more common than hypertension and rheumatism, but it impairs quality of life more than diabetes and heart disease. It has negative effects not only physically but also psychologically. Sinusitis; It prepares the ground for problems such as nasal congestion, pain in the forehead, fatigue and fatigue, sleep at night, sleep, snoring, as well as stomach, intestinal and lung problems. Therefore, the factors that cause sinusitis and sinusitis must be treated.
One of the most important causes of headache among the people is known as sinusitis. Sinusitis is quite severe and can cause pain that affects the quality of life. The causes of headaches originating from sinuses, which are air-filled cavities around the nose, are briefly;
- Mucosal contact surfaces and hitting pain
- Oxygen-freeness or negative pressure due to lack of ventilation
- Inflammatory tissues (polyp) can be listed as the result of the pressure on the surrounding tissues.
It is natural for more than one sinus to be sick in many sinus diseases. Consequently, the complaints will be a whole formed by one and more sinuses. In addition, the reflected pain phenomenon gets involved.
Pain in the cheeks of the cheek region proceeds from the sinus area to the upper teeth. The pain is sometimes heard in the cheekbone, nasal and forehead area. Pain in chronic sinusitis is a less common symptom, unlike the general opinion. Pain in malignant tumors of the cheek sinus can only be a complaint in the advanced circuit.
Cysts of the cheek sinuses are also the cause of pain. When cysts grow and cover the inside of the sinus, they are especially the cause of pain with the pressure they put on the sinus mouths. The pain is usually severe and extends from the cheek area to the forehead. There is an increase in tear secretion and nasal congestion.
In acute infections of the nasal root sinuses, there is pain on the same side nasal root and eyes. It is rarely found alone. Generally, cheek and forehead sinusitis is present in the form of pansinusitis. Benign tumors called osteoma are also known for their pain from the beginning.
In forehead pain, sinusitis of the forehead is often blamed. However, it is easy to empty because of the anatomical feature of the forehead sinus mouth, it provides not much pain in forehead sinusitis.
Although there is minimal discussion among the nasal sinuses in terms of features, what is still unspoken in terms of clinical findings is the sinuses in the head source. Still, the complaint and disease still take refuge in examining the sinusitis of the head system.
In acute infection, there is headache, pain radiating to the shoulder, teeth, palate and nose, neck stiffness, nasal pain, forgetfulness and thoughtfulness.
The air in the sinus is theoretically at the same atmospheric pressure as the air outside, and the balancing of pressure is associated with the normal permeability of the sinus mouths. Disruption of this relationship causes the formation of excessive or deficient air pressure in the sinus compared to the external environment.
The practical consequence of this is the emergence of a pain. A formation called “vacuum sinusitis” and “vacuum headache”, which is accompanied by a decrease in air pressure, especially in the sinus, is mentioned. This situation; either as a result of clogging of the sinus mouth for some reason and absorption of the gases in it by mucosa, or failure to adapt to external atmospheric pressure changes. It is explained by the obstruction of the sinus mouth due to inflammation, allergic and tumoral formations and preventing air permeability. Opening the sinus mouth eliminates pain.
When sinusitis is not treated properly, chronic pharyngitis, chronic gastritis, reflux, infection around the eyes and abscesses, meningitis, brain abscess can cause serious diseases.
The diagnosis of sinusitis is made by otolaryngological examination and endoscopic examination, direct radiography and sinus tomography methods. In the disease classified as “acute”, “subacute” and “chronic”; acute sinusitis lasts about 4 weeks. It passes with medication or spontaneously. Subacute sinusitis is a transition phase.
At this stage, acute sinusitis did not heal; chronic sinusitis is not fully formed. Chronic sinusitis lasts longer than about 3 months. First of all, antibiotic treatment is applied. If sinusitis has become chronic, that is, it cannot be treated with medication, sinusitis surgery may come up.
“Endoscopic Sinus Surgery” can be applied to patients with chronic sinusitis or “Balloon Sinoplasty Surgery” can be applied in patients who are deemed appropriate. In endoscopic sinus surgery, the polyp or other anatomical disorders that block the natural channels of the sinuses are corrected and the channels of the sinuses are opened.
However, this method requires a longer recovery period. It is an operation that must be done carefully and carefully in terms of complication risk. Balloon synoplasty is a more up-to-date method that is applied only to the sinuses in the face, forehead and nasal areas.
The suitability of the patient for this method should be determined by the doctor. With this treatment, the patient is discharged on the same day, he can return to work the next day and the natural anatomical structure of the patient is not disrupted.
“Balloon Sinusoplasty” provides rapid healing in the nose without damaging any tissues, without bleeding and without the need for tampons. This method is applied in the treatment of sinus, similar to the method used to open the blocked vessels of the heart. In the method, after the closed hole of the sinuses is found, the deflated balloon is placed in this hole and the balloon is inflated with a certain pressure after observing that the balloon is in the right place under the X-ray. This ensures success in the hole that needs to be opened or widened.
Advantages of Balloon Sinusoplasty
Balloon Sinusoplasty is important in that it does not cause bloody surgery, a scar due to surgery at the end of the procedure, and a closure associated with it. It is also a very reliable method in terms of preventing complications of eye, brain and vascular structures that may arise during the surgical procedure. The patient can easily get rid of this problem with the treatment of sinusitis with a balloon applied only in 20 minutes.
The patient’s hospital stay and recovery process is extremely shortened. He can be discharged on the same day and return to his normal life the next day. There is no pain problem after the operation. Although it is applied in all kinds of sinusitis cases, it gives very successful results in correctly selected cases. The method can be considered a breakthrough in sinusitis operations, which is a fearful dream for sinusitis patients. Balloon sinusitis treatment is not applied to patients with sinusitis with meat growth, those with small sinuses obstructed, and to people under 17 years of age.
Sinusitis Treatment in Children
Conditions requiring surgery for sinuses in pediatric sinusitis are cases that are resistant to drug therapy. Surgery is an important option in the treatment of inflammation around the eyes caused by sinusitis. In children with adenoid or chronic tonsillitis accompanied by chronic sinusitis, removing adenoid and, when necessary, tonsils is not a method to treat chronic sinusitis alone, an auxiliary treatment should also be applied.
Preferred endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis that does not heal despite adenoid and tonsil surgeries performed when necessary with medication at the appropriate time. The most important goal in this surgery should be to open the sinus mouths and clean the inside of the sinuses. If the most important treatment option suitable for the child is surgery, this should be done without wasting time.
Ways to Prevent Sinusitis
It is very important to know how to prevent the occurrence of sinusitis, a disease that can be repeated even if it is treated. It is recommended to follow these recommendations to prevent sinusitis;
- Influenza infection must be treated under the control of a doctor.
- The nose should always be kept open during the infection. For this, it is useful to use ocean waters or to swim in terms of emptying the sinuses. At home, a teaspoon of salt and half a teaspoon of baking soda can be mixed into the water glass and the inside of the nose can be washed. These will prevent the sinuses from filling in flu infections. To keep the nose open, eucalyptus vapor with menthol can also be made.
- Care should be taken not to go outside with wet hair.
- It should not be exposed to direct wind.
- Allergy treatment should not be neglected.
- Nasal bone curvatures should be eliminated by treating the size and swelling of the nose meat.
Known Mistakes in Sinusitis Diseases
Some methods, which are thought to be good for sinusitis, can have some vital consequences. Some natural treatments and herbal treatments that are thought to be good for sinusitis can be very risky. Plants that are thought to be good for sinusitis should not be squeezed into the nose. Otherwise, if the plant used flows from the back of the nose to the lower respiratory tract, it may cause a throat edema, causing the patient to die.
The nose should not be swept fast, the infection in the nose may go to the ear in very severe blows. This can result in otitis media.
Do sinus infections go away on their own?
The diagnosis of sinusitis is made by otolaryngological examination and endoscopic examination, direct radiography and sinus tomography methods. In the disease classified as “acute”, “subacute” and “chronic”; acute sinusitis lasts about 4 weeks. Passes by medication or spontaneously
How long can a sinus infection last if not treated?
Acute sinusitis: This lasts up to 4 weeks and is the most common type. Subacute sinusitis: Symptoms last longer than the normal acute period, from 4 to 12 weeks. Chronic sinusitis: After 12 weeks, symptoms persist or repeat continuously
What is the first sign of sinusitis?
One of the main known factors of headache is sinusitis. Factors affecting here; Pain that strikes the head and face, oxygen deficiency, and inflammatory conditions.
When should I go to the doctor for a sinus infection?
Although common sinusitis after a cold and flu is bothersome and painful, it usually disappears without medical intervention. However, if symptoms persist for more than 7 to 10 days, or if you have a fever or bad headache, you should see your doctor.